L. CASEI 431® was initially isolated from the fecal sample of a healthy infant. It is able to survive in the gastrointestinal tract and has been used in food and dietary supplements since 1995.
L. CASEI 431® has been described in more than 90 scientific publications, out of which more than 20 are publications of human clinical studies; the documented potential immune function benefits, makes L. CASEI 431® a well-documented probiotic strain.
L. CASEI 431® is safe for human consumption and has been granted QPS (Qualified Presumption of Safety) status by EFSA in Europe.9 It has been tested in clinical studies at levels of up to at least 50 billion CFU/day (colony forming units), alone and in combination with Bifidobacterium, BB-12® with no adverse events.
L. CASEI 431® is a registered trademark of Chr. Hansen A/S.
The article is provided for informational purposes regarding probiotics and is not meant to suggest that any substance referenced in the article is intended to diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent any disease.
At Chr. Hansen, our strains are backed by science. All of our probiotic strains are supported by clinical documentation. Learn more about the beneficial effects our strains have on different health areas.
1. Jacobsen CN, et al. Screening of probiotic activities of forty-seven strains of Lactobacillus spp. by in vitro techniques and evaluation of the colonization ability of five selected strains in humans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999;65(11):4949-56. (PubMed)
2. Internal Chr. Hansen data on file.
3. Zeuthen LH, et al. Lactic acid bacteria inducing a weak interleukin-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha response in human dendritic cells inhibit strongly stimulating lactic acid bacteria but act synergistically with gram-negative bacteria. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13(3):365-75. (PubMed)
4. Rizzardini G, et al. Evaluation of the immune benefits of two probiotic strains Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, BB-12® and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, L. casei 431® in an influenza vaccination model: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Nutr. 2012;107(6):876-84. (PubMed)
5. Jespersen L, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. casei 431 on immune response to influenza vaccination and upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adult volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(6):1188-96. (PubMed)
6. Trachootham, D. et al. Drinking fermented milk containing Lactobacillus paracasei 431 (IMULUSTM) improves immune response against H1N1 and cross-reactive H3N2 viruses after influenza vaccination: A pilot randomized triple-blinded placebo controlled trial. Journal of Functional Foods. 2017;33, 1–10.
7. De Vrese, M. et al. Probiotic bacteria stimulate virus-specific neutralizing antibodies following a booster polio vaccination. European Journal of Nutrition. 2005;44(7), 406–413. (PubMed)
8. Vlieger AM, et al. Tolerance and safety of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei in combination with Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis in a prebiotic-containing infant formula: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2009;102(6):869-75. (PubMed)
9. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ). Statement on the update of the list of QPS-recommended biological agents intentionally added to food or feed as notified to EFSA 3: Suitability of taxonomic units notified to EFSA until September 2015. EFSA Journal. 2015;13:4331.